Latin Terms in Hong Kong Legal Language

Product Name in original language
香港法律語言常見拉丁詞彙
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拉丁詞語是英文法律乃至歐洲法律的一大語言特色。作為專業術語,拉丁詞語濃縮了法律人士之間的共識,其在醫學領域也有同樣的作用。掌握這些拉丁術語很有挑戰性,但也大有裨益。

本書是第一本以香港常用的拉丁法律詞彙翻譯為主題的中英文法律專書,挑選了在香港法律領域中105個最常用的拉丁詞語作解釋。本書除提供基本資訊,如詞性、讀音和詞義外,更提供詞語的中英文翻譯、從雙語法律文本中篩選的適當例句,以及根據雙語判決書提供每個詞彙的使用率。

《香港法律語言常見拉丁詞彙》極具實用參考價值,有助律師、法律從業員、翻譯人員、法律系學生等掌握拉丁法律詞語的用法,亦有助其他讀者認識法律語言及了解香港語言狀況。

Latin terms constitute a special feature of English legal language as well as the language of Law in many European countries. They encapsulate specific meanings shared across the legal professions internationally, as is the case with medical terms in Latin. Mastering them can be both challenging and rewarding.

Featuring 105 Latin legal terms, this is the first Chinese-English book to describe the most commonly used Latin words and phrases found in Hong Kong’s legal instruments and laws. The bilingual examples were meticulously collected from statutory and judicial sources to help readers better understand their meanings and their actual usage in the context of Hong Kong. The provision of usage frequency for each term also shows how these Latin terms and their interpretation have evolved over time.
Common Latin Terms in Hong Kong Legal Language provides an accessible and easy-to-use guide for legal practitioners, law students, and anyone interested in the legal language and the bilingual milieu of Hong Kong.
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「本書的中文譯文段落,措辭典雅,行文優美,讀來實屬賞心樂事。我極力推薦。」
"The translated passages in this book are rendered in elegant Chinese which makes them a joy to read. I commend it highly."
鄧國楨,香港終審法院非常任法官
The Honourable Mr Justice Robert Tang, Non-Permanent Judge of the Court of Final Appeal, Hong Kong

「想要就這些術語的起源和應用刨根問底的讀者,會發現本書囊括的拉丁短語在各種專著和法律資料中無所不在。乃謂經年之美。」
"To those who are interested in looking deeper into the origins and application of these terms, the Latin phrases they find here may be found in countless treatises and juridical sources. That is the beauty of long usage."
梁定邦,資深大律師
Anthony Neoh, Senior Counsel

「本書中的英文和中文內容並列,令讀者很容易就能查找到拉丁文法律詞彙在案例和法律條文的框架下最常用的中文翻譯。」
"With the English and Chinese contents placed alongside each other, this book makes it very easy for readers to look up the most commonly used Chinese translations of a Latin legal term in the statutory and judicial context. "
鄧賜強,律師
Paul Tang, Solicitor
ISBN
978-962-937-362-7
Pub. Date
Jul 1, 2021
Weight
0.8kg
Paperback
392 pages
Dimension
152 x 229 mm
This book utilizes a sizable bilingual legal judgement database to provide a useful reference on the use of Latin terms and their Chinese equivalents in Hong Kong, not only for those in the legal profession but also for any others interested in the language situation of Hong Kong.

Words of Latin or Romance language origin constitute a special and important feature of English legal language. In spite of their introduction into the English language mostly in the distant past, they are still commonly used in modern English, especially in the legal domain, and basically with the preservation of their original meanings. Therefore, these terms (with the majority from Latin) stand out as a special lexical layer which for a long time has served to characterize in English the genre of legal writing, as in the case with medicine.

The use of words derived from a different language variety such as the incorporation of Latin in English is not unique to English, or other languages in Europe. There is also a similar tradition of diglossia among languages of East Asia such as Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Modern Chinese. For them the Classical Chinese language has provided such a lexical stratum, following the incorporation of the study of the Chinese Classics in the education of the elite, and the use of the logographic writing system in the development of indigenous literary traditions within what is known as Sinosphere or logographic circle in East Asia.


A useful example may be provided by “appendectomy” in Japanese, Vietnamese and Chinese .
(1)


(2)


(3)

Another example is “subdural hematoma”, the term referring to “blood clot under the skull”,
(4)


(5)


(6)

The English term draws from Latin “sub” and “dura”, and from Greek “hematoma”, while the Sino-Japanese term refers to “blood swelling under the (hard) skull/brain membrane”. There are clearly parallel word constituents in Japanese and Vietnamese based on Chinese .

In the case of Latin terms found in English, the meaning and information encoded in the legal terms are very highly compact and succinct, so the terms cannot be rendered into English with just single words or appropriate periphrastic expressions. Therefore, what may appear to be jargonistic terms constitute a major vocational challenge which legal professionals have to overcome . Moreover, some items such as forum, ex-officio, alibi, pro rata, vis-a-vis have been incorporated into the basic formal English vocabulary . Given the unassailable and dominant status of English in Hong Kong in the past 150 years, many such Latin terms have been in use for a long time in legal documents. Against this background, the present book intends to provide readers with a useful account of the authentic usage of 105 such Latin terms which are commonly used in the Hong Kong legal domain.
a fortiori estoppel lis pendens quantum
ab initio ex debito justitiae locus classicus quantum meruit
actus reus ex facie locus standi quid pro quo
ad litem ex gratia mala fide quorum
alias ex hypothesi mala fides ratio decidendi
alibi ex officio mandamus ratione personae
aliunde ex parte mens rea res
allocator ex tempore minutia res gestae
alter ego fieri facias modus operandi res ipsa loquitur
amicus curiae forum mutatis mutandis res judicata
animus possidendi functus officio nisi sic
autrefois acquit habeas corpus non est factum sine die
autrefois convict in limine novus actus interveniens status quo
bona fide in personam officium sub judice
bona fides in re onus subpoena ad
bona vacantia in rem parens patriae testificandum
caveat in specie pari passu subpoena duces tecum
certiorari in toto per capita supra
contra proferentem rule inter alia per incuriam uberrima fides
de bene esse inter partes per se ultra vires
de bonis non inter se praecipe virtute officii
de facto inter vivos prima facie vis-à-vis
de jure intra vires prima facie case viva voce
de minimis issue estoppel prima facie evidence voir dire
de novo jus soli pro forma volenti non fit injuria
dictum lis pro rata  
estop lis alibi pendens pro tanto  

 

Authors

Benjamin K. Tsou, MA (Harvard), PhD (U.C. Berkley), Emeritus Professor at the City University of Hong Kong, joined the University in 1984. He founded the Research Center in Language Information Sciences in 1995, and since then, his team has been cultivating a Big Database to monitor language and related matters in Beijing, Hong Kong, Macau, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LIVAC_Synchronous_

Corpus). He has published widely on the quantitative and qualitative studies of language and has held Visiting/Honorary positions in Australia, Canada, France, Japan, Singapore, Thailand, and USA, as well as Beijing and Taipei. In 1999, The Language Atlas of China, of which he is an editor and contributor won a First-Class Award for Outstanding Research Achievements of CASS in China. He is also the founding president of the Asian Federation of Natural Language Processing, and currently a member of the Académie Royale des Sciences d’Outre-Mer (Belgium).

Andy Chin is currently Associate Professor and Head of the Department of Linguistics and Modern Language Studies at The Education University of Hong Kong. He did his BA & MPhil degrees in linguistics at the City University of Hong Kong. He then received the Sir Edward Youde Memorial Fellowship for Overseas Studies to pursue doctoral studies at the University of Washington. His research interests include Cantonese linguistics, linguistic typology, sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, corpus linguistics. He won the Young Scholar Award of the International Association of Chinese Linguistics in 2009. In 2012, he developed The Corpus of Mid-20th Century Hong Kong Cantonese which won the Gold Medal and Special Award in the 2019 Silicon Valley International Invention Festival.

 

 

作者簡介

鄒嘉彥,哈佛大學碩士,加州大學柏克萊分校博士,比利時皇家海外科學院院士,現為香港城市大學翻譯及語言學系榮休教授。鄒教授於1984年加入城大,為應用語言學系創系主任,1995–2010年任語言資訊科學研究中心主任,曾任亞洲自然語言處理聯會創會會長,曾先後造訪澳洲、法國、加拿大、美國、日本、新加坡、泰國、以及北京、台北等地的高校。1995年起,他的團隊建立了LIVAC泛華語地區共時語料庫,以大數據追蹤北京、香港、澳門、上海、新加坡和台北等地語言和相關情況(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

LIVAC_Synchronous_Corpus),所發表著作主要包括關於語言定量和定性研究成果。其為主編之一的《中國語言地圖集》獲1999年中國社會科學院優秀研究成果一等獎。

 

錢志安,現任香港教育大學語言學及現代語言系副教授及系主任。錢博士於香港城市大學修讀語言學學士和哲學碩士學位,後獲尤德爵士紀念基金海外研究生獎學金,赴華盛頓大學攻讀哲學博士學位。研究領域包括粵語語言學、語言類型學、社會語言學、篇章語言學、語料庫語言學等。2009年獲得中國語言學學會青年學者獎。

錢博士2012年建構的《二十世紀中期香港粵語語料庫》獲得2019年美國矽谷國際發明節金獎及特別獎。