Definition of Bullying

When talking about bullying, people instantly associate the one with aggressive behaviour is the bully that is oversimplified and misleading.

In fact, a precise definition of bullying is any well-planned action intended to harm somebody, including physical violence, verbal threats and discrimination, in order to gain a benefit or reward (e.g. money, materials, power etc.).

Features of Bullies:

1)Tend to be well-planned

2)Take advantages from others

3)Are calm and assess risk rationally

4)Select the weak as the target of bullying

5)Have no empahy for the victims

In 1987, Dodge and Coie's Two-Factor model categorised aggressor into two subtypes: Proactive Aggressor and Reactive Aggressor.

Proactive Aggressor - Bullies

1) Believe aggression is an effective way to achieve personal goals; 2) Observe the environment calmly and evaluate unfavourable factors then, deploy strategies that are beneficial to them; 3) Overestimate themselves and underestimate the consequences; 4) Have no empathy for the victims; and 5) Develop as early as 6.8-year-old

Reactive Aggressor - Defensive Revenger

1) Are often mistaken as bullies; 2) Distort in receiving and interpret external cues;      3) Attribute social cues externally: treating others’ behaviour as hostile and offensive;    4) Act aggressively to protect themselves; and 5) Develop as early as 4.4-year-old

If there is no early intervention for these children, negative short-term and long-term impacts would be generated in schools, families and societies, for instance, school bullying, peer victimisation, family violence or even killing and homicide. To read the definitions and the theories of reactive aggressor and proactive aggressor, please refer to Subtypes of Aggressors - Proactive Aggressors and Subtypes of Aggressors - Reactive Aggressors .

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