Youth Empowerment and Volunteerism: Principles, Policies and Practices
This book is a collection of papers presented at the International Conference on Youth Empowerment over the last four years. It explores the relationship between youth volunteerism and empowerment which is considered as an inherent cornerstone in the social and psychological growth for youth. Written by a team of experts on issues about youth, the book presents the various theories, models, paradigms and concepts related to youth empowerment and volunteerism. With selected examples in countries around the world, it also reveals to us how different cultures infuse their own history, language, mores, laws, policies, demographics, and socio-political infrastructures in facilitating youth empowerment and volunteerism.
Youth hold the key to the world of the future, and empowering youth is actually a human empowerment toward a better world of great hope. In this collection, one clearly sees how youth are empowered through volunteerism; given the chance to serve their communities, youth can indeed become responsible citizens of tomorrow.
Monit CHEUNG, Dan FERRAND-BECHMANN, Michael J. HOLOSKO, Melissa HUM, Guoping JIANG, Ping Kwong KAM, Marc LANGLOIS, Elaine S. C. LIU, T. Wing LO, Allen M. OMOTO, Malcom PAYNE, Edwin RISLER, Mark SNYDER, Songxing SU, Ngoh Tiong TAN, Michael UNGAR, Xiaodong YUE
Subsequent to the two international conferences, we have collected eleven fulltext papers presented in the plenary sessions from the two conferences. All of thesehave been refereed and edited for this book. The submissions are about the varioustheories, concepts, ideas, programmes, examples, projects, and issues about youth,volunteerism, and youth empowerment. This edited book serves as a testimonyand memory for all who had participated in this series of youth focused projects. Inthe collection, one clearly sees how youth potential is unlimited all over the world.Given the chance to serve their communities, youth can indeed become responsiblecitizens of tomorrow.
The chapters and numerous examples herein, clearly demonstrate thesynergistic, energising, and dynamic relationship between those who hold socialresources for youth, those who initiate and coordinate youth programmes, and theyouth themselves who participate in such projects. Youth empowerment is thus, a“Win-Win” scenario for both youth and the communities in which they live.This book is organised into three parts: Youth Empowerment and Volunteerism:Concepts, Models and Theories, Selected Examples in Countries around the Worldand Conclusions. Part One presents the various theories, models, paradigms, andconcepts related to youth empowerment and volunteerism. All of these are both “fieldtested” and practical approaches which set the context for a better understanding ofthe numerous examples which follow in Part Two.
Although the chapters in this first part are written by authors from the UnitedStates, China, and Canada, they all convey that: a) empowerment is a dynamicprocess, b) youth volunteerism is an actualising and empowering process, and c)such a process holds the potential for positive outcomes not only of an immediatenature, but for healthy life long fulfilment.
Chapters 1, 2, and 3 can be viewed as a set of cornerstones concerned withempowerment model-building through volunteerism. In Chapter 1, Snyder andOmoto use empirical studies mainly from their own extensive body of research andpresent a three stage Volunteer Process Model (VPM), comprised of antecedents ofvolunteerism, experiences of volunteerism, and consequences of volunteerism. Theyclearly address the underpinning psychology of volunteerism and empirically answerthe important question — who gets involved in volunteerism and why? In Chapter 2,Omoto and Snyder extend their model to illustrate and justify the role of communitycontext, linkages, and connections to their volunteer model. Using their earlier VPM(in Chapter 1), they clearly argue the case that any model purporting to understandvolunteering that is devoid of community context, is seriously remiss. In Chapter 3,Risler and Holosko present the core elements, distilled from the literature, of a youthempowerment model. Their model is presented as a blueprint for implementation.It includes a series of examples and open-ended process questions for others toaddress, in planning for and applying this approach. In Chapter 4, Yue concludesby using the underlying concepts of hardiness and resilience nested in dispositionalempowerment, to demonstrate how these important aspects of empowerment areinterrelated. He discusses how they impact positively on intrinsic factors such aswell-being, optimism, cognitive re-appraisal of self and coping effectiveness. Finallyin Chapter 5, Kam draws on examples from Hong Kong to describe factors andprocesses that not only empower youth but others that may disempower them. Heconcludes the chapter and this part with an eight-step model to direct a successfulempowerment approach. Interestingly, when one reads these eight-steps and looksat them as essentials for successful empowerment through volunteerism, they forma set of assumptions that underline all of the examples in the remaining chaptersthat follow.
Part One—Youth Empowerment and Volunteerism: Concepts, Models and Theories
- Who Gets Involved and Why? The Psychology of Volunteerism
—Mark SNYDER and Allen M. OMOTO
- The Role of Community Connections in Volunteerism and Social Action
—Allen M. OMOTO and Mark SNYDER
- Blueprint for a Youth Empowerment Model (YEM) through Volunteerism
—Edwin A. RISLER and Michael J. HOLOSKO
- Youth Dispositional Empowerment: Cultivating Hardiness and Resilience
- From Social Control to Empowerment: Toward a Youth Empowerment Approach in Services for Young People
—Ping Kwong KAM
Part Two—Youth Empowerment and Volunteerism: Selected Examples in Countries around the World
6. In Search of Youth Empowerment in England
7. Mistaken Identities: Canadian Youth and their Search for a Place in their
—Michael UNGAR, Marc LANGLOIS, and Melissa HUM
8. Youth Empowerment in Singapore: Theory, Experience, and Practice
—Ngoh Tiong TAN
9. Project Passport: Empowering Young Minority Women through a Volunteer
Programme in the United States
10. Youth Empowerment and Self-Actualisation: Experiences in Shanghai, China
—T. Wing LO, Songxing SU, and Guoping JIANG;
11. Youth Empowerment in France: Action and Reaction
Part Three—Youth Empowerment and Volunteerism: Selected Examples in Countries around the World
12. Onward and Upward: Youth are the Future!
—Elaine S. C. LIU and Michael J. HOLOSKO