The course is designed to familiarize students with the modes of action of the major classes of drugs used in veterinary medicine and drug use in the clinical setting. Ongoing cases in the City University Hospital for Small Animals, “mock” cases on farms and ambulatory clinic cases will be used as teaching tools. Concepts in pharmacology are emphasized, with a focus on the rationale for drug choice, alternative drug choices available, pharmacokinetic considerations, routes of administration, individual variation in responses, dose variation in responses, side-effects and potential drug interactions/toxicities. It also provides veterinary students with a solid introduction to concepts and principles of toxicology and how they are applied in the clinical setting. Students learn about specific common toxicants, clinical signs in affected animals, and treatment protocols for the toxicants in question. Students also gain an understanding of the clinical approach to suspected or unknown toxicoses, sample collection and handling, and resources available for clinical toxicological problems. The most clinically relevant approaches or emphases required with different species’ varied response to xenobiotics will also be taught.