This course aims to critically examine the theories and methods used in defining, interpreting, and protecting intangible cultural heritages of indigenous communities. Key aspects of intangible heritage will be introduced through case studies on oral traditions, ritual practices and festive events, performing arts, traditional craftsmanship, food and cuisine, and digital heritage. The course will engage in current debates about the ownership and authenticity of heritage, by taking into account the negotiations of cultural memories and identities, economic resources, and political struggles at the local, national, and global level. Through analyzing archaeological and ethnographic materials, reading documents on international organizations, public policy, and legal frameworks, as well as conducting field research and oral history interview, the course will address heritage both as an academic discipline and as a professional field. Students are led to explore the concept and practice of intangible heritage from a range of global contexts, in order to work towards developing a comparative framework for understanding indigenous cultures not only in China but also around the world.