Anti-aggression Interventions with Evidence-based Effective Outcomes

Local Practical Impact

Invited Professional Regular Training Seminars at the Government Departments (HKPF, EDB, SWD, & CSD)

As a renowned expert in the research area of reactive and proactive aggression, aggressive and pure victimisation of school bullying as well as murder and homicide, Dr. Annis Fung has been continuously invited to offer regular training and sharing.

  • Currently, the number of practitioners has been trained as follows:
    • Hong Kong Police Force: Over 3,300
    • Social Welfare Department: Over 850
    • Education Bureau: Over 7,000
    • Correctional Service Department: Over 60 (The Commissioner, Deputy Commissioner, Assistant Commissioners, & Superintendents)

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The Innovative Well-developed Assessment Tools for the Hong Kong Police Force

A validated assessment tool has been well-developed for police officers to make an accurate and efficient assessment of reactive and proactive aggression for each suspect across different kinds of crimes, including murder, assault, and family violence. It could be useful for them to distinguish the uniqueness of cognition, emotion, and behaviour of suspects; hence aid in gathering evidence for criminal investigation and suspect apprehension.


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Appointment of Child Fatality Review Panel Member

Aiming at reviewing the child protection policy and facilitating the enhancement of social service systems, pertaining to child and youth welfare with a focus on inter-sectoral collaboration and multi-disciplinary, including Education Bureau, Police Force, Social Welfare Department, cooperation for the prevention of occurrence of avoidable child death cases.

Child Fatality Review Reports

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Promoting and Popularising the Adoption of Omega-3 Supplementation in Hong Kong

Omega-3 supplementation has been well-proved could significantly reduce the aggression through her GRF project from 2015-2018.

Police Force

Suggesting the Omega-3 supplementation to the Guardians of the Juveniles in the Police Superintendent’s Discretion Scheme; thus, lower youth relapse rate and prevent serious crimes.

Hong Kong Correctional Services

Reducing aggressive behaviour of inmates; thus, lowering the relapse rate.

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International Impact

Theoretical Paradigm Shift

Adopting the two-factor model, based on the functions and underlying goals of the actions of differentiating reactive and proactive aggression as well as aggressive and pure victimisation of school bullying.

Currently, possessing the most extensive dataset, over 100,000 sample size, for the Two-factor model in the world.

Pioneering Worldwide Innovative Interventions

Developing evidence-based outcome effectiveness of specific pioneering interventions for each subtype of aggressive behaviour and victimisation globally, including:

  • Psychotherapeutic approach (Cognitive-behavioural Therapy)
  • Physio-moral approach (Chinese Martial Arts & Ethics)
  • Neurobiological approach (Omega-3 Supplementation)
  • Social-information-processing approach (Group Storytelling Intervention)
  • Constructivist approach (Film-making Intervention)

Academic Collaboration (Local & International)

Developed a pioneering Chinese version assessments tool for distinguishing reactive and proactive aggression and well-validated among Chinese population internationally.

Collaborating with scholars at different universities globally, including the United States, United Kingdom, Spain, Singapore, Australia, and so forth.

Future Study – Parenting Efficacy


Aiming to explore external factors in reducing childhood aggression

The effectiveness of parenting is believed not only to have a more continued and in-depth improvement on children's anger control and empathy competency as well as the reduction in children’s narcissism, but it is also beneficial to the parents and their marriage satisfaction.

Theoretical Background from One-factor to Two-factor Model on Aggression

One-factor Model (Bullies vs Victims)

When talking about bullying, people instantly associate the one with aggressive behaviour is the bully that is oversimplified and misleading.

A precise definition of bullying is any well-planned action intended to harm a victim to gain "benefits", which is not limited to something tangible but also something intangible.


From One-factor Model to Two-factor Model on Aggression


Two-factor Model

In 1987, three decades ago, Dodge and Coie first categorised aggression into two subtypes: Reactive Aggression and Proactive Aggression.

  • Continuous studies have well-documented that:
  • Reactive aggression is correlated with hot-bloodedness, impulsivity, hostile attributional bias, attention problems, anger arousal and deficits in social-skills (Raine et al., 2006; Cima & Raine, 2009).
  • Proactive Aggression is associated with cold-bloodedness, goal-orientation, callous-unemotional traits, narcissism, delinquency and anti-social personality traits (Brendgen et al., 2006; Fontaine, 2006).

Two-factor Model (Cont.)

Reactive and proactive aggression can be developed as early 4.4 and 6.8-year-old, respectively (Dodge et al., 1997).

Without any early intervention for these children, negative short-term and long-term impacts would be generated in schools, families and societies, for instance, school bullying, peer victimisation, family violence, or even killing and homicide.

High-risk Factors of Placing Children At-risk of Bullying and Aggression


The narcissistic index of proactive aggression among Hong Kong students is close and even higher than the American and Canadian youth offenders.

Parenting Style

Monster and Helicopter Parents are positively correlated with both proactive and reactive aggression.

Family Income

Family income >$30,000 have a more significant tendency of narcissistic traits and proactive aggression.

Worldwide Innovative Intervention Projects or Approaches

Cognitive-behavioural Approach


Quality Education Fund (QEF) 2006 - 2014 – Project on Children and Adolescents at Risk Education (C.A.R.E.)

Served 52 secondary school and 25 primary schools in Hong Kong.

Aimed at identifying and disputing irrational beliefs of cognitive distortions among children and youth with high-risk in reactive and proactive aggression.

Project Scope

Project C.A.R.E.: Project on Children and Adolescents at Risk Education

Physio-moral Approach

Martial Arts

General Research Fund (GRF) 2014 - 2017 – Traditional Chinese Martial Arts Training in Reducing Schoolchildren Aggression

Redefined the meaning of aggressive behaviour after enhancing their moral standard.

Students’ reactively aggressive behaviour, proactively aggressive behaviour, delinquency and attention problems had been reduced by 42%, 65%, 55% and 40%, sequentially.

Project Overview

CityU researchers reveal Chinese martial arts can reduce children’s aggressive behaviour

Neurobiological Approach

Omega 3

General Research Fund (GRF) 2015 - 2018 – Taking Omega-3 Supplements to Reduce Externalising Behaviour Problems in Risk-taking Adolescents

Aimed at enhancing the brain executive functioning and then to reduce aggressive behaviour.

By boosting synaptic functioning, reducing cell death and regulating neurotransmitter functioning and expression, removing the brain dysfunctions that predispose one to aggression.

Project Overview

Social Information Processing Approach


General Research Fund (GRF) 2018 - 2020 - Group Storytelling Intervention to Reduce Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Schoolchildren

Strengthening children’s responsiveness to social cues, empathy competence, problem-solving ability and prosocial skills.

Modelling the characters in storybooks to imitate their social skills, anger management skills, and emotion regulation.

Project Overview

Our experts

Dr. Annis Fung Lai Chu

Dr. FUNG Lai Chu Annis
+852 34422923
CityU Scholar
SS Homepage

  • School Bullying and Cyberbullying
  • Reactive and Proactive Aggression
  • Psychopathy in Schoolchildren
  • Aggressive and Pure Victimization
  • Evidence-based Intervention
  • Counselling Strategies in Family and School
  • Ph.D., Social Work and Social Administration, the University of Hong Kong.
  • M.A., Counselling, Keele University, Staffordshire, the United Kingdom.
  • Fung, A. L. C. (In Press). The significance of family structure in internalizing (anxious/depressed) and externalizing (aggressive/delinquent) problems among Chinese adolescents. Applied Research in Quality of Life.
  • Lam, B. Y., Raine, A., Fung, A. L., Gao, Y., & Lee, T. M. (In Press). Caregivers’ Grit Moderates the Relationship Between Children’s Executive Function and Aggression. Frontiers in Psychology, section Developmental Psychology.
  • Raine, A., Fung, A. L. C., Gao, Y., & Lee, T. M. (In Press). Omega-3 supplementation, child antisocial behavior, and psychopathic personality: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel group trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.
  • Fung, S. F., & Fung, A. L. C. (In Press). Development and evaluation of the psychometric properties of a brief parenting scale (PS-7) for the parents of adolescents. PloS one15(1), e0228287.
  • Chen, F. R., Fung, A. L. C., & Raine, A. (In Press). The cognitive, affective, and somatic empathy scales (CASES): Cross-cultural replication and specificity to different forms of aggression and victimization. Journal of personality assessment, 1-12.
  • Gerstein, L. H., Hutchison, A., Chan, Y., & Fung, A. L. C. (In Press). Conflict resolution strategies of Hong Kong aggressive youth. Current Psychology, 1-9.
  • Tsang, E. Y. H., Qiao, S., Wilkinson, J. S., Fung, A. L. C., Lipeleke, F., & Li, X. (2019) Multilayered stigma and vulnerabilities for HIV infection and transmission: A qualitative study on male sex workers in Zimbabwe. American Journal of Men’s Health, 13(1), 1-11.
  • Fung, A. L. C. (2019). Adolescent reactive and proactive aggression, and bullying in Hong Kong: Prevalence, psychosocial correlates, and prevention. Journal of Adolescent Health.
  • Fung, A. L. C., Tsang, E. Y. H., Zhou, G. D., Low, A. Y. T., Ho, M. Y. & Lam, B. Y. H. (2019). Relationship between peer victimization and reactive-proactive aggression in school children. Psychology of Violence, doi:, A. L. C. (2018). Cognitive-behavioural group therapy for pure victims with internalizing problems: an evidence-based one-year longitudinal study. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 13(3), 691-708.
  • Fung, A. L. C. (2018). Reducing reactive aggression in schoolchildren through child, parent, and conjoint parent-child group interventions: An efficacy of longitudinal outcomes. Family Process, 57(3), 594-612.
  • Gao, Y., Zhang, W., Eisenbarth, H., Fung, A. L. C., Lu, M., Raine, A., Lee, T., & Li, X. (2018). P3 amplitude and psychopathic traits in youths: Distinct contributions of the grandiose-manipulative and daring-impulsivity traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 120, 87-94.
  • Chan, J. Y., Harlow, A. J., Kinsey, R., Gerstein, L. H., & Fung, A. L. C. (2018). The examination of authoritarian parenting styles, specific forms of peer-victimization, and reactive aggression in Hong Kong Youth. School Psychology International, 39(4), 378-399.
  • Fung, A. L. C., & Lee, T. K. H. (2018). Effectiveness of Chinese martial arts and philosophy to reduce reactive and proactive aggression in schoolchildren. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 39(5), 404-414.
  • Fung, A. L. C., Li X., Ramirez, M. J., Lam, B. Y. H., Millana, L., & Fares-Otero, N. E. (2018) A cross-regional study of the reactive and proactive aggression of youth in Spain, Uruguay, Mainland China, and Hong Kong. Social Development, 27(4), 748-760.
  • Tse, S. S. K., Fung, A. L. C., Tsoi, E. W. S., Chan, H. H. L., & Lo, I. W. K. (2018). Knowledge of counselling and attitudes toward seeking counselling help in Hong Kong. Journal of Counselling Profession, 1(1), 15-25.
  • Leung, M. K., Lau, W. K., Chan, C. C., Wong, S. S., Fung, A. L. C., & Lee, T. M. (2018). Meditation-induced neuroplastic changes in amygdala activity during negative affective processing. Social Neuroscience,13(3), 277-288.
  • Gerstein, L. H., Chan, Y., Hutchison, A., Fung, A. L. C., Kinsey, R., & Jeffers, H. (2018). The teenage nonviolence test: Applicability in Hong Kong?. Current Psychology, 37(1), 313-324.  
  • Chan, J. Y., Gerstein, L. H., Kinsey, R., & Fung, A. L. C. (2018). Asian adults’ hypercompetitiveness and distress: The mediating role of a negative problem-solving orientation. Current Psychology 37(1), 188-197.  
  • Fung, A. L. C. (2017). Intervention for reactive/proactive aggressors and aggressive/pure victims of school bullying in Hong Kong: A review and new developments. Neuropsychiatry, 7(6), 956-960.
  • Zhou, G., & Fung, A. L. C. (2016). Inter-parental conflict and reactive and proactive aggression in adolescence: A moderated mediation model. International Journal of Psychology, 51, 24.
  • Gao, Y., Zhang, W., & Fung, A. L. C. (2015). The associations between parenting styles and proactive and reactive aggression in Hong Kong children and adolescents. International Journal of Psychology, 50(6), 463-471.   
  • Li, A. X., & Fung, A. L. C. (2015). Reactive and proactive aggression in mainland Chinese secondary school students. Journal of Social Work, 15(3), 297-316.  
  • Fung, A. L. C., Gerstein, L. H., Chan, Y., & Engebretson, J. (2015). Relationship of aggression to anxiety, depression, anger, and empathy in Hong Kong. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(3), 821-831.
  • Rowan, D., Jarkestig-Berggren, U., Cambridge, I., McAuliffe, D., Fung, A. L. C., & Moore, M. (2015). The 6 continents project: A method for linking social work classrooms for intercultural exchange through asynchronous video sharing. International Social Work, 58(4), 484- 494.   
  • Zhou, G. D. & Fung, A. L. C. (2014). Distinguishing reactive aggression from proactive aggression. Psychological Development and Education, 30(1), 105-111.   
  • Raine, A., Fung, A. L. C., Portnoy, J., Choy, O., & Spring, V. L. (2014). Low heart rate as a risk factor for child and adolescent proactive aggressive and impulsive psychopathic behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 40(4), 290-299.
  • Fung, A. L. C., Gerstein, L. H., Chan, Y., & Hurley, E. (2013). Children’s aggression, parenting styles, and distress for Hong Kong parents. Journal of Family Violence, 28(5), 515-521.
  • Fung, A. L. C., Gerstein, L. H., Chan, Y., & Hutchison, A. (2013). Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for Hong Kong students that engage in bullying. Revista De Cerecetare Si Interventie Sociala 42, 68-84.
  • Chan, J. Y. C., Fung, A. L. C., & Gerstein, L. H. (2013). Correlates of pure and co-occurring proactive and reactive aggressors in Hong Kong. Psychology in the Schools, 50(2), 181-192.
  • Law, A. K. Y. & Fung, A. L. C. (2013). Different forms of online and face-to-face victimization among schoolchildren with pure and co-occurring dimensions of reactive and proactive aggression. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 1224-1233.
  • Fung, A. L. C. (2012). Group treatment of reactive aggressors by social workers in a Hong Kong school setting: A two-year longitudinal study adopting quantitative and qualitative approaches. British Journal of Social Work, 42(8), 1533-1555.
  • Fung, A. L. C. (2012). Intervention for aggressive victims of school bullying: A longitudinal mixed-methods study in Hong Kong. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53(4), 360-367.
  • Fung, A. L. C. & Raine, A. (2012). Peer victimization as a risk factor for schizotypal personality in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Personality Disorder, 26(3), 428-434.
  • Ramírez, M. J., Fung, A. L. C., Alvarado, J. M., & Millana, L. (2011). Justification of emotional and instrumental aggression in Hong Kong and Spanish University students. The Open Psychology Journal, 4, 64-72.
  • Raine, A., Fung, A. L. C., & Lam, B. Y. H. (2011). Peer victimization partially mediates the schizotypy-aggression relationship in children and adolescents. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37(5), 937-945.   
  • Fung, A. L. C. (2010). Cyber-bullying: Concepts, prevention, and intervention. Journal of Youth Studies, 13(2), 31-42.  
  • Fung, A. L. C., & Law, A. K. Y. (2010). De-escalating childhood aggression in Hong Kong. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 18(1), 93-101.
  • Fung, A. L. C., Gao, Y., & Raine, A. (2010). The utility of the child and adolescent psychopathy construct in Hong Kong, China. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39(1), 134-140.
  • Fung, A. L. C. (2010). Different Developmental Trajectories for Two Forms of Student Aggression. Asian Journal of Counselling, 17(1-2), 1-19.
  • Fung, A. L. C., Raine, A., & Gao, Y. (2009). Cross-cultural generalizability of the reactive-proactive aggression questionnaire (RPQ). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(5), 473-479.
  • Fung, A. L. C. (2008). Developing prosocial behaviors in early adolescence with reactive aggression. International Journal of Progressive Education, 4(3), 34-52.
  • Fung, A. L. C. (2007). A qualitative evaluation of social-cognitive changes in children with reactively aggressive behaviors. Journal of School Violence, 6(1), 45-64.  
  • Fung, A. L. C., & Tsang, S. K. M. (2007). Anger coping method and skill training for Chinese children with physically aggressive behaviors. Early Child Development and Care, 177(3), 259-273.
  • Fung, A. L. C., Wong, J. L. P. & Chak, Y. T. C. (2007). School bullying: Risk factors, cognitive distortion and intervention for reactive aggressors. Journal of Youth Studies, 10(1), 3-13.
  • Fung, A.L.C. (2006). Evaluating treatment outcomes on cognition, behaviour and stress of parents with aggressive children. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 1(1), 9-20.
  • Fung, A.L.C., & Tsang, S. H. K. M. (2006). Parent-child parallel-group intervention for childhood aggression in Hong Kong. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 11(1), 31-48.
  • 2019 “Research Impact Award,” CLASS, CityU.
  • 2017 “Excellence in Knowledge Transfer Award, Merit of Certificate,” CLASS, CityU.
  • 2013 “Hero Award, School-University Leader,” the Third Annual Anti-Bullying Summit, United States.
  • 2012 “Excellence in Knowledge Transfer Award,” CLASS, CityU.
  • 2010 “Distinguished Alumni Award,” HKU.
  • 2009 “Teaching Excellence Award,” CityU.
  • 2008 “Outstanding Project Award,” the Quality Education Fund (QEF) of Education Bureau (EDB) of the HKSAR.
  • Committee Member, Student Affairs Committee.
  • Associate Fellow, Approved Supervisor, Certified Counsellor, Hong Kong Professional Counselling Association.
  • Committee Member, Academic Conduct Committee, The Department of Social and Behavioural Sciences.
  • Committee Member, College Board Committee.
  • Committee Member, College Research Impact Committee.
  • Committee Member, College/School Academic Conduct Committee.
  • Consultant & Trainer, Hong Kong Police Force.
  • Consultant & Trainer, the Correctional Services Department of the HKSAR.
  • Consultant & Trainer, the Social Welfare Department of the HKSAR.
  • Consultant, Evangel School, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Hong Kong.
  • Director, the Centre of Fathering, the Family Value Foundation of Hong Kong.
  • Director, the Hans Andersen Club.
  • Editorial Board Member, CPQ Neurology and Psychology.
  • Editorial Board Member, Human Resources Management and Services.
  • Editorial Board Member, Journal of Depression and Anxiety Forecast.
  • Editorial Board Member, Journal of Neuropathology.
  • Editorial Board Member, Journal of Psychiatry and Cognitive Behavior.
  • Editorial Board Member, Modern Management Forum.
  • Editorial Board Member, Psychological Disorders and Research.
  • Editorial Board Member, Psychology & Psychological Research International Journal.
  • Editorial Board Member, Social Development Issues.
  • Editorial Board, Frontiers in Public Health.
  • Encyclopaedia of Child Adolescent Development.
  • Guest Editor, Applied Research in Quality of Life.
  • Immediate Past President, Hong Kong Professional Counselling Association.
  • Panel Member, Child Fatality Review Panel, the Social Welfare Department of the HKSAR.
  • Panel Member, Textbook Review Panel, the Consumer Council of the HKSAR.
  • Programme Leader, MSocSc in Counselling Programme. 2019 - Present, Editorial Board Member, American Journal of Pediatrics.
  • Selection Committee, the Social Welfare Department of the HKSAR.
  • Public Policy Research Funding Scheme (Special Round), Policy Innovation and Co-ordination office of the Government of the HKSAR. "The Underlying Causes and Characteristics of Aggression and Victimisation among Participants in the Recent Social Incidents". 2020-2021, Principal Investigator, HKD $471,000
  • CityU's Strategic Research Grant. "An Innovative Evidence-Based Outcome Fathering Programme Study in Reducing Reactive and Proactive Aggression Among At-Risk Adolescents and Children". 2019-2021, Principal Investigator, HKD $100,000
  • UGC’s General Research Fund. “Group Storytelling Intervention Based on Social Information Processing Model to Reduce Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Schoolchildren.” 2018-2020, Principal Investigator, HKD $683,200
  • UGC’s General Research Fund. “Perceived Overparenting and Developmental Outcomes of Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong.” 2018-2020, Co-investigator, HKD $649,000
  • UGC’s General Research Fund. “Omega-3 Supplementation to Reduce Externalizing Behaviour Problems in Risk-taking Adolescents: A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Trial.” 2015-2018, Principal Investigator, HKD $730,300
  • UGC’s General Research Fund. “Traditional Chinese Martial Arts Training in Reducing Aggression: An Evidence-based Evaluation on the Effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Martial Arts Training in Reducing Schoolchildren Aggression.” 2014-2018, Principal Investigator, HKD $390,400
  • CityU’s Teaching Development Grant. Enhancement of Innovative Counselling Knowledge and Skills in Youth Aggression and Victimization Across Family and School Contexts for Practitioners, 2013-2015, Principal Investigator, HKD $179,315
  • UGC’s General Research Fund. “The Neural Effect of Focused-attention Meditation and Loving-kindness Meditation on Attention and Emotion Perception.” 2013-2015, Co-investigator, HKD $732,319
  • UGC Knowledge Transfer Earmarked Fund. “C.A.R.E. Home Cares Children and Adolescents at Risk Education.” 2012-2014, Principal Investigator, HKD $199,860
  • EDB’s Quality Education Fund. “Project on Children and Adolescents at Risk Education (Project C.A.R.E.).” 2006-2011, Principal Investigator, HKD $10,931,100
  • CityU’s Faculty Research Committee. “Cross-cultural Studies of Family Relationships and Social Support Towards Domestic Violence in Culturally Diverse Families.” 2005-2006, Principal Investigator, HKD $99,929,
  • Faculty Research Committee, Behavioural Validation of Reactive-Proactive Aggression Conceptual Framework: Computer Game Approach, 2006-2007, Principal Investigator, $59,955