The work by Dr. Sam Hsu

Dr. Masaru Yarime examined the network of the stakeholders participating in developing smart cities in Japan and the United States. The Japanese network shows a concentrated structure dominated by a relatively small number of large actors mainly in the electric and engineering industries and the public sector, whereas the U.S. network exhibits a more distributed structure with various actors in the utility and information and communication technology industries, including small- and medium-sized enterprises and start-ups.