Office of Education Development and Gateway Education

Constructive Alignment

Outcomes Based Teaching and Learning

In OBTL the outcomes that students are intended to attain at the end of a course or programme are the target of teaching, rather than a list of topics the teacher is supposed to 'cover'. Constructive alignment is a design for implementing OBTL in three stages:

Intended Learning Outcomes (ILO's): These explicitly express the course or programme curriculum in terms of specific outcome knowledge, skills or abilities based on an appropriate action verb. There are usually about five ILO's for each course.

Teaching and Learning Activities (TLA's): Providing and engaging students in a range of learning activities that are designed to provide them with the opportunity to achieve the stated outcomes.

Assessment Tasks (AT's): Assessing how well students have attained those outcomes and converting the results into a final grade for the course.