City University of Hong Kong Department Name


Building and plant modeling


 Design analysis supported by computer simulation involves the ※creation§ of a behavioral model of a building at a given project stage. The simulation task involves executing this model on a digital computer, and analyzing its observable states, which are made up of the post-processed outputs of the simulation runs. Behavioral models have been developed by reducing real world physical entities and phenomena to an idealized form, and at a desired level of abstraction. From this abstraction, a mathematical model is constructed by applying the conservation laws of physics. Efforts were spent in developing component models of various sorts to meet a range of simulation needs. The range of models developed spans from empirical to fundamental types. Many of these exist in the component libraries of the public-domain building simulation software for ready use. However, where a component model in the library does not exactly match the equipment types selected for a given project, the user may have to develop a bespoke model that encapsulates relevant algorithms and physical parameters. This applicability problem is non-trivial and has given impetus to a search for alternative modeling approaches that offer inherent configurability. Primitive part modeling is one approach introduced to allow any component model to be built from a pre-formed set of generic, process-based elements.


Data structure of PP auto-connection

The use of design tool that focuses on a single domain is likely to result in sub-optimum design solutions. It can be more appropriate, where possible, to use an integrated simulation tool throughout the design process than to use a progression of tools 每 from simplified to detail 每 and to ignore the many theoretical discontinuities and even contradicting assumptions. While the components of a thermal model 每 the building, the plant, the CFD domain etc. 每 may be processed independently, it is better to subject them to an integrated assessment whereby the dynamic interactions are explicitly represented.

 Integrative simulation environment


Related publications :

Book chapters:

Chow TT, Chan ALS. Advanced simulation tools for building services design. In: Building Design and Development in Hong Kong, Chapter 7, City University Press, IBSN: 962-937-079-4, Hong Kong, China, 2002, pp.113-138.

Chow Tin-tai, Chan Apple Lok Shun. Computer simulation 每 the indispensible tool in modern design. In: Development Trends in Building Services Engineering, Chapter 2, City University of Hong Kong Press, ISBN: 978-962-937-162-3, Hong Kong, China, 2009, pp.31-60.

Journal articles:

Chow TT, Ip F, Dunn A, Tse WL. Numerical modeling of thermal behaviour of fluid conduit flow with transport delay. ASHRAE Transactions, 102, Part 2, 1996, 45-51.

Chow TT, Clarke JA, Dunn A. Primitive parts: an approach to air-conditioning component modeling. Energy And Buildings, 26(2), 1997, 165-173.

Chow TT. Chilled water cooling coil models from empirical to fundamental. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, 32, 1997, 63-83.

Chow TT, Clarke JA. Theoretical basis of primitive-part modeling. ASHRAE Transactions, 104, Part 2, 1998, 299-312.

Chow TT. Integration of building and HVAC simulation by elementary models. Architectural Science Review, 41(4), 1998, 199-205.

Chow TT, Lin Z, Song CL, Zhang GQ. Artificial neural networks used in the direct-fired absorption chiller system identification. Journal of Refrigeration, 87(1), 2001, 35-42 (in Chinese with English Abstract).

Chow TT, Zhang GQ, Lin Z, Song CL. ANN model of a direct-fired absorption chiller system for energy evaluation. International Journal of Modeling and Simulation, 23(1), 2003, 52-59.

Chow TT, Song CL. Auto-connection technique in primitive part modeling. International Journal on Architectural Science, 5(3), 2004, 69-78.

Chow TT, He W, Chan ALS, Fong KF, Lin Z, Ji J. Computer modeling and experimental validation of a building-integrated photovoltaic and water heating system. Applied Thermal Engineering, 28(11-12), 2008, 1356-1364.

Chow TT, Pei G, Fong KF, Lin Z, Chan ALS, He M. Modeling and application of direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump for water heating in subtropical Hong Kong. Applied Energy, 87(2), 2010, 643-649.

Chan ALS, Chow TT. Investigation on energy performance and energy payback period of application of balcony for residential apartment in Hong Kong.?Energy and Buildings, 42(12): 2400-2405, 2010.

Chan ALS, Chow TT, Fong KF, Lin Z. Investigation of urban heat and effect on the energy performance of buildings in Hong Kong. The Renewable Energy 2010 International Conference, Tokohama, Japan, 27 June-2 July, 2010. (CF-D-ROM)

Chan ALS. Energy and environmental performance of building facades integrated with phase change material in subtropical Hong Kong. Energy and Buildings, 43(10), 2011, 2947-2955.

Chow TT, Long H, Mok HY, Li KW. Estimation of soil temperature profile in Hong Kong from climatic variables. Energy and Buildings, 43(12), 2011, 3568-3575.

Chan ALS. Effect of adjacent shading on the thermal performance of residential buildings in a subtropical region. Applied Energy, 92, 2012, 516-522.

Fong SKF, Lee CK and Chow TT. Investigation on variable flow control in existing water-cooled chiller plant of high-rise commercial building in subtropical climate. HVAC&R Research, 20(1), 2014, 51-60

Fong, SKF and Lee CK. Investigation on zero grid-electricity design strategies of solid oxide fuel cell trigeneration system for high-rise building in hot and humid climate. Applied Energy, 114, 2014, 426-433.

Li ZW, Huang GS. Re-evaluation of building load prediction models for use in humid subtropical area. Energy and Buildings, 62, 2013, 442-449.

Chan ALS, Chow TT. Thermal performance of air-conditioned office buildings constructed with inclined walls in different climates in China. Applied Energy, 114, 2014, 45–57.

Conference papers:

Chow TT. A plant component taxonomy for ESP-r simulation environment. Building Simulation '93, the 3rd IBPSA International Conference, Adelaide, Australia, August 1993, pp.429-434.

Chow TT. Generalization in plant component modeling. Proceedings of Building Simulation '95, the 4th IBPSA International Conference, Madison, USA, August 1995, pp.48-55.

Chow TT. A way to unify mathematical models of integrated building and plant simulation. Proceedings of 31st Annual Conference of Australian & New Zealand Architectural Science Association, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, October 1997, pp.67-72.

Chow TT. Building thermal simulation via generic elementary models. Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Conference on the Built Environment, Taipei, Taiwan, Nov-Dec 1999, pp.A4:1-10.

Chow TT. Numerical modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer processes by generic fundamental components. Proceedings of HEFAT2002, the 1st International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics, and Thermodynamics, Kruger Park, South Africa, April 2002, Vol.1, Part 1, pp.302-307.

Chow TT, Clarke JA, Song CL. The role of primitive part modeling within an integrative simulation environment. Proceedings of Building Simulation 2003, the 8th IBPSA International Conference, Eindhoven, Netherland, August 2003, pp.187-194.

Chan ALS, Chow TT, Fong KF, Lin Z. Investigation of Urban Heat Island Effect on the Energy Performance of Buildings in Hong Kong. Proceedings of the Renewable Energy 2010 International Conference, Yokohama, Japan, 27 June - 2 July 2010. (CD-ROM)

Wang Jinliang, Chow Tin-tai, Lin Zhang. The influence of human movement on transport of airborne infectious particles in hospital premises. Proceedings of ASim2012, the 1st Asia Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Shanghai, China, 25-27 November 2012. (CD-ROM)

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