Tsinghua University first started as Tsinghua School, whose aim was to prepare its graudate for study in the United States with scholarships provided by the Boxer Indemnity Scholarship Programme. After its establishment as a university in 1925, Tsinghua focused on nurturing local as well, in China, which it did during the Beijing and Nanjing Governments. During those periods, eighty percent of the students who studied abroad focused on engineering and the sciences, including agriculture, biology, physics, chemistry, while the other twenty percent studied law, politics, finance, economics, and education. These choices reflected the beliefs of “Science and Technology for the National Salvation” and “Industry for the National Salvation.” The students’ mission was to return after having obtained their modern education abroad, and to use their knowledge to enrich their country and its military force. The crushing defeat of China in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894 had dramatically revealed the weaknesses of traditional education, which thereafter slowly expanded to include areas of technical knowledge, which could assist Chinese industries. The students returning home with their new degrees played an important role in the creation of a modern system of science research and education, leading to China’s own scientific discoveries and entrance onto the world stage.